Wicca is a religious movement based on the “old religion” defined by Gerald Gardner and elements, including beliefs such as shamanism, Druidism, Greco-Roman, Slavic, Celtic and Norse mythology. The followers of Wicca, advocate the cult of nature, and sometimes engage, but not necessarily, with white magic.
History of Wicca
Wicca is part of the European neo-paganism movement of the early 20th century. It consists of a syncretism popularized by British Gerald Gardner in two books: Witchcraft Today, published in 1954 and The Meaning of Witchcraft in 1959. The book of shadows, Gardnerian reference book Wicca was originally written by Gerald Gardner (some, such as Danielle Hemmert and Alex Roudene also suggest a paid contribution by Aleister Crowley, the famous founder of the occult philosophy Thelemic), which was partially rewritten by Doreen Valiente (born on January 4, 1922 in Mitcham in north London under the name of Doreen Edith Dominy) according to some authors. Wicca has theoretically his own bible. It summarizes the beliefs and rituals of the lineage of initiation traditions. Among the more eclectic Wiccans or Wicca followers, who are now found in the majority, this is a religious magazine written or compiled by the adept himself for his own use.
God for the Wiccans
Most Wiccans believe in a double deity represented by a great horn goddess and god seen as complementary polarities and the incarnation of the forces of nature. The divine representations of Wicca are many and varied, depending on the culture.
Goddess Mother: she symbolizes female energy, night, magic, water, earth, fertility, cauldron, five-pointed star, cut, mirror. According to Wicca, it is associated with the moon.
The followers of Wicca believe that “all is one” and that, therefore, Divinity is everywhere and in everything. Therefore, everything must be honored for Wicca.
Initially confined to a restricted circle, Wicca has gradually developed in the Anglo-Saxon countries, where it is the main form of neo-paganism. Their beliefs and practices differ greatly between individuals and the boundary between real Wicca and other forms of neopaganism that are often blurred.
In 1990 the NSRI study had estimated the number of Wiccans in the United States at 8000. The following ARIS study, conducted in 2001 found 134,000 Wicca followers. The Pew Forum survey, conducted in 2008, estimated approximately 1.2 million Americans practice New Age religions. Most of them are Wiccans or strongly influenced by Wicca. These figures probably underestimate the true magnitude of the movement, a significant proportion of Wiccan practice is secretly out of fear of discrimination.